PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

István Juhász

University of Debrecen

Ágnes Korotij

Reviewed by 

Új Széchenyi Terv logó.

2011


Table of Contents

FOREWORD
1. 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1. 1.1 Modeling
1.2. 1.2 Basic concepts
1.3. 1.3 Classification of programming languages
1.4. Questions
2. 2 BASIC ELEMENTS
2.1. 2.1 Character set
2.2. 2.2 Lexical units
2.2.1. 2.2.1 Multi-character symbols
2.2.2. 2.2.2 Symbolic names
2.2.3. 2.2.3 Labels
2.2.4. 2.2.4 Comments
2.2.5. 2.2.5 Literals (Constants)
2.3. 2.3 General rules for the composition of source text
2.4. Questions
3. 3 LITERALS IN LANGUAGES
3.1. Pascal
3.2. C
3.3. Ada
4. 4 DATA TYPES
4.1. 4.1 Simple types
4.2. 4.2 Composite types
4.3. 4.3 Pointer type
4.4. Questions
5. 5 NAMED CONSTANT AND VARIABLE
5.1. 5.1 Named constant
5.2. 5.2 Variable
5.3. Questions
6. 6 TYPES AND DECLARATIONS IN LANGUAGES
6.1. Turbo Pascal
6.2. Ada
6.3. C
7. 7 EXPRESSIONS
7.1. Constant expressions
7.2. Questions
8. 8 EXPRESSIONS IN C
9. 9 STATEMENTS
9.1. 9.1 Assignment statements
9.2. 9.2 The empty statement
9.3. 9.3 The GOTO statement
9.4. 9.4 Selection statements
9.4.1. 9.4.1 Conditional statements
9.4.2. 9.4.2 Case/switch statement
9.5. 9.5 Loop statements
9.5.1. 9.5.1 Conditional loops
9.5.2. 9.5.2 Count-controlled loops
9.5.3. 9.5.3 Enumeration-controlled loops
9.5.4. 9.5.4 Infinite loops
9.5.5. 9.5.5 Composite loops
9.6. Questions
10. 10 EXAMPLES OF LOOP STATEMENTS IN LANGUAGES
10.1. FORTRAN
10.2. PL/I
10.3. Pascal
10.4. Ada
10.5. C
10.6. Control flow statements in C
11. 11 THE STRUCTURE OF PROGRAMS
11.1. 11.1 Subprograms
11.2. 11.2 The Call Chain and Recursion
11.3. 11.3 Secondary Entry Points
11.4. 11.4 Block
11.5. 11.5 Compilation Unit
11.6. Questions
12. 12 PARAMETER EVALUATION AND PARAMETER PASSING
12.1. 12.1 Parameter Passing
12.2. Questions
13. 13 SCOPE
13.1. Questions
14. 14 EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC LANGUAGE FEATURES
14.1. FORTRAN
14.2. PL/I
14.3. Pascal
14.4. Ada
14.5. C
15. 15 ABSTRACT DATA TYPES AND THE PACKAGE
15.1. Questions
16. 16 ON ADA COMPILATION
16.1. 16.1 Pragmas
16.2. 16.2 Compilation Units
16.3. Questions
17. 17 EXCEPTION HANDLING
17.1. 17.1 Exception Handling in PL/I
17.2. 17.2 Exception Handling in Ada
17.3. Questions
18. 18 GENERIC PROGRAMMING
18.1. Questions
19. 19 PARALLEL PROGRAMMING AND THE TASK
19.1. 19.1 Ada Tasks
19.2. Questions
20. 20 INPUT/OUTPUT
20.1. 20.1 I/O Features of Languages
20.2. Questions
21. 21 MEMORY MANAGEMENT IN IMPERATIVE LANGUAGES
21.1. Questions
22. 22 OBJECT-ORIENTED PARADIGM
22.1. Questions
23. 23 JAVA
23.1. Java Basics
23.2. Types
23.3. Literals
23.4. Names
23.5. Block
23.6. Variables
23.7. Expressions
23.8. Statements
23.9. Packages
23.10. Classes
23.11. Fields
23.12. Methods
23.13. Instance initializer
23.14. Static initializer
23.15. Constructors
23.16. Instantiation
23.17. Interfaces
23.18. Exception handling
23.19. Parallel programming
23.20. Questions
24. 24 THE FUNCTIONAL PARADIGM
24.1. Questions
25. 25 THE LOGIC PARADIGM AND PROLOG
25.1. Questions
BIBLIOGRAPHY